[llvm-dev] RFC: Adding 'no-overflow' keyword to 'sdiv'\'udiv' instructions
Agabaria, Mohammed via llvm-dev
llvm-dev at lists.llvm.org
Wed Nov 29 01:23:04 PST 2017
Introduction:
We would like to add new keyword to 'sdiv'\'udiv' instructions i.e. 'no-overflow'.
This is the updated solution devised in the discussion: http://lists.llvm.org/pipermail/llvm-dev/2017-October/118257.html
The proposed keywords:
"nof" stands for 'no-overflow'
Syntax:
<result> = sdiv nof <ty> <op1>, <op2> ; yields ty:result
<result> = udiv nof <ty> <op1>, <op2> ; yields ty:result
Overview:
If the keyword is present, the compiler can assume no zero values in the denominator. Moreover, for sdiv the division MIN_INT / -1 is prohibited. Otherwise, undefined behavior.
Poison value is returned, in case of division by zero or MIN_INT/-1 if the keyword not present.
Motivation:
In the current state if the loop-vectorizer decides that it should vectorize a loop which contains a predicated integer division - it will vectorize the loop body and scalarize the predicated division instruction into a sequence of branches that guard scalar division operations. In some cases the generated code for this will not be very efficient. Speculating the divides using current vector sdiv instruction is not an option due to the danger of integer divide-by-zero.
There are two ways for ensuring the safety of "vector div under condition", One way is to use the same condition as the scalar execution. Current serialization approach and previous masked integer div intrinsic proposal (http://lists.llvm.org/pipermail/llvm-dev/2017-October/118257.html) follows this idea. Second way is to check the actual divisor, regardless of the original condition. The 'no-overflow' keyword follows this idea. If the original code has possible div-by-zero behavior, for example, the latter approach will end up hiding it -- by taking advantage of the undefined behavior.
With the addition of 'nof' keyword Clang will lower C\C++ division to 'nof' div IR since it will keep the same semantics.
In case the vectorizer decided to vectorize one of the predicated div it can be done by widening the datatype of the div and the 'nof' keyword will not hold anymore (because of the risk that one of the predicated lanes may have zero).
Keeping that with the widened datatype will allow codegen to lower that instruction as a vector instruction while ensuring lanes that may have zero values do not trigger a trap.
Implementation considerations:
Initially all the targets can scalarize vector sdiv\udiv instructions to one with 'nof' by using guards for each lane:
%r = sdiv <4 x i32> %a, %b can be lowered to:
(assuimg %a = <i32 %a.0, i32 %a.1, i32 %a.2, i32 %a.3>, %b = <i32 %b.0, i32 %b.1, i32 %b.2, i32 %b.3> and %r = <i32 %r.0, i32 %r.1, i32 %r.2, i32 %r.3>)
If CheckSafety(%a.0,%b.0):
%r.0 = sdiv nof i32 %a.0, %b.0
If CheckSafety(%a.1,%b.1):
%r.1 = sdiv nof i32 %a.1, %b.1
If CheckSafety(%a.2,%b.2):
%r.2 = sdiv nof i32 %a.2, %b.2
If CheckSafety(%a.3,%b.3):
%r.3 = sdiv nof i32 %a.3, %b.3
CheckSafety(a,b): (of sdiv)
b != 0 || (b != -1 && a != MIN_INT)
CheckSafety(a,b): (of udiv)
b != 0
Changes in LangRef.rst of udiv/sdiv Instructions:
-----------------------------------------------------------
'``udiv``' Instruction
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Syntax:
"""""""
::
<result> = udiv <ty> <op1>, <op2> ; yields ty:result
<result> = udiv exact <ty> <op1>, <op2> ; yields ty:result
+ <result> = udiv nof <ty> <op1>, <op2> ; yields ty:result
Overview:
"""""""""
The '``udiv``' instruction returns the quotient of its two operands.
Arguments:
""""""""""
The two arguments to the '``udiv``' instruction must be
:ref:`integer <t_integer>` or :ref:`vector <t_vector>` of integer values. Both
arguments must have identical types.
Semantics:
""""""""""
The value produced is the unsigned integer quotient of the two operands.
Note that unsigned integer division and signed integer division are
distinct operations; for signed integer division, use '``sdiv``'.
Division by zero is undefined behavior. For vectors, if any element
of the divisor is zero, the operation has undefined behavior.
See the description of the ``nof`` keyword below for division by zero.
If the ``exact`` keyword is present, the result value of the ``udiv`` is
a :ref:`poison value <poisonvalues>` if %op1 is not a multiple of %op2 (as
such, "((a udiv exact b) mul b) == a").
``nof``stands for "No Overflow". If the ``nof`` keyword is present, the result is undefined behavior for division by zero.
If the ``nof`` keyword is not present, division by zero results in poison value.
For vectors, if any element of the divisor is zero, the behavior is same as for scalar division by zero.
'``sdiv``' Instruction
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Syntax:
"""""""
::
<result> = sdiv <ty> <op1>, <op2> ; yields ty:result
<result> = sdiv exact <ty> <op1>, <op2> ; yields ty:result
+ <result> = sdiv nof <ty> <op1>, <op2> ; yields ty:result
Overview
"""""""""
The '``sdiv``' instruction returns the quotient of its two operands.
Arguments:
""""""""""
The two arguments to the '``sdiv``' instruction must be
:ref:`integer <t_integer>` or :ref:`vector <t_vector>` of integer values. Both
arguments must have identical types.
Semantics:
""""""""""
The value produced is the signed integer quotient of the two operands
rounded towards zero.
Note that signed integer division and unsigned integer division are
distinct operations; for unsigned integer division, use '``udiv``'.
Division by zero is undefined behavior. For vectors, if any element
of the divisor is zero, the operation has undefined behavior.
Overflow also leads to undefined behavior; this is a rare case, but can
occur, for example, by doing a 32-bit division of -2147483648 by -1.
See the description of the ``nof`` keyword below for division by zero and overflow.
If the ``exact`` keyword is present, the result value of the ``sdiv`` is
a :ref:`poison value <poisonvalues>` if the result would be rounded.
``nof``stands for "No Overflow". If the ``nof`` keyword is present, the result is undefined behavior if overflow occurs. This may be result of division by zero or dividing the smallest representable integer of the type by -1.
If the ``nof`` keyword is not present, the overflow cases described above result in poison value.
For vectors, if any element of the division causes overflow, the behavior is same as for scalar division with overflow.
Example:
""""""""
.. code-block:: text
<result> = sdiv i32 4, %var ; yields i32:result = 4 / %var
---------------------------------------------------------------------
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